software : the history of software know in detail

The following is a brief timeline of the history of software:

June 21, 1948. Tom Kilburn, a computer scientist, writes the world’s first piece of software for the Manchester Baby computer at the University of Manchester in England.
Early 1950s. General Motors creates the first OS, for the IBM 701 Electronic Data Processing Machine. It is called General Motors Operating System, or GM OS.
1958. Statistician John Tukey coins This word in an article about computer programming.
Late 1960s. Floppy disks are introduced and are used in the 1980s and 1990s to distribute software.
Nov. 3, 1971. AT&T releases the first edition of the Unix OS.
1977. Apple releases the Apple II and consumer software takes off.
1979. VisiCorp releases VisiCalc for the Apple II, the first spreadsheet software for personal computers.

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1981. Microsoft releases MS-DOS, the OS on which many of the early IBM computers ran. IBM begins selling software, and commercial software becomes available to the average consumer.
1980s. Hard drives become standard on PCs, and manufacturers start bundling This in computers.
1983. The free software movement is launched with Richard Stallman’s GNU (GNU is not Unix) Linux project to create a Unix-like OS with source code that can be freely copied, modified and distributed.
1984. Mac OS is released to run Apple’s Macintosh line.
Mid-1980s. It applications, including AutoDesk AutoCAD, Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel, are released.
1985. Microsoft Windows 1.0 is released.
1989. CD-ROMs become standard and hold much more data than floppy disks. Large software programs can be distributed quickly, easily and relatively inexpensively.
1991. The Linux kernel, the basis for the open source Linux OS, is released.
1997. DVDs are introduced and able to hold more data than CDs, making it possible to put bundles of programs, such as the Microsoft Office Suite, onto one disk.

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1999. Salesforce.com uses cloud computing to pioneer It delivery over the internet.
2000. The term of it as a service (SaaS) comes into vogue.
2007. IPhone is launched and mobile applications begin to take hold.
2010 to the present. DVDs are becoming obsolete as users buy and download It from the internet and the cloud. Vendors move to subscription-based models and SaaS has become common.

How does software work?

These all provides the directions and data computers need to work and meet users’ needs. However, the two different types — application software and system software — work in distinctly different ways.

Application software

This consists of many programs that perform specific functions for end users, such as writing reports and navigating websites. Applications can also perform tasks for other applications. Applications on a computer cannot run on their own; they require a computer’s OS, along with other supporting system this programs, to work.

These desktop applications are installed on a user’s computer and use the computer memory to carry out tasks. They take up space on the computer’s hard drive and do not need an internet connection to work. However, desktop applications must adhere to the requirements of the hardware devices they run on.

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Web applications, on the other hand, only require internet access to work; they do not rely on the hardware and system software to run. Consequently, users can launch web applications from devices that have a web browser. Since the components responsible for the application functionality are on the server, users can launch the app from Windows, Mac, Linux or any other OS.

System software

It sits between the computer hardware and the application software. Users do not interact directly with system it runs in the background, handling the basic functions of the computer. It coordinates a system’s hardware and software so users can run high-level application software to perform specific actions. It executes when a computer system boots up and continues running as long as the system is on.

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